Literature Improves Empathy


Have you ever felt that reading a good book makes you better able to connect with your fellow human beings? If so, the results of a new scientific study back you up, but only if your reading material is literary fiction – pulp fiction or non-fiction will not do.

Great Expectations from great literature … empathy occurs in the spaces between characters, such as Joe and Pip, pictured here in the 2012 film adaptation. Photograph: Moviestore/Rex Features

Empathy occurs in the spaces between characters, such as Joe and Pip in Great Expectations, pictured here in the 2012 film adaptation. Photograph: Moviestore/Rex Features

Psychologists David Comer Kidd and Emanuele Castano, at the New School for Social Research in New York, have proved that reading literary fiction enhances the ability to detect and understand other people’s emotions, a crucial skill in navigating complex social relationships.

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Literature Improves Thinking

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little-girl-reading-book

Are you uncomfortable with ambiguity? It’s a common condition, but a highly problematic one. The compulsion to quell that unease can inspire snap judgments, rigid thinking, and bad decision-making.

Fortunately, new research suggests a simple antidote for this affliction: Read more literary fiction.

A trio of University of Toronto scholars, led by psychologist Maja Djikic, report that people who have just read a short story have less need for what psychologists call “cognitive closure.” Compared with peers who have just read an essay, they expressed more comfort with disorder and uncertainty—attitudes that allow for both sophisticated thinking and greater creativity.

“Exposure to literature,” the researchers write in the Creativity Research Journal, “may offer a (way for people) to become more likely to open their minds.”

Djikic and her colleagues describe an experiment featuring 100 University of Toronto students. After arriving at the lab and providing some personal information, the students read either one of eight short stories or one of eight essays. The fictional stories were by authors including Wallace Stegner, Jean Stafford, and Paul Bowles; the non-fiction essays were by equally illustrious writers such as George Bernard Shaw and Stephen Jay Gould.

Afterwards, each participant filled out a survey measuring their emotional need for certainty and stability. They expressed their agreement or disagreement with such statements as “I don’t like situations that are uncertain” and “I dislike questions that can be answered in many different ways.” Continue reading

Week 4:8 (May 7-11)

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Pre-IB English 2: Macbeth E-text, “Reading Shakespeare”Theme LogA3-4 RolesB3-4 RolesC3-4 Roles, Suggested Open Prompts for MacbethWeaving & Citation GuideProofreading ExpectationsThesis GeneratorThesis NotesOutline FormTransitions ToolboxFinal Exam ScheduleTheme Reflection #2, Semester Grade ChartExam Study Guide

AP Literature: Past Open Essay PromptsSuggested Works for Open EssayAP Lit TermsAP Score Calculator, Major Works Data Sheet (2018)MWDP (2017)MWDP (2016)MWDP (2015)MWDP (2014)MWDP (2013)

Week 4:7 (Apr. 30-May 4)

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Pre-IB English 2:  Macbeth E-text, “Reading Shakespeare” PacketTheme LogA3-4 RolesB3-4 RolesC3-4 Roles, Suggested Open PromptsQuotation Weaving & Citation GuideProofreading ExpectationsThesis GeneratorThesis NotesProof-of-Concept Outline Form (Unofficial)Transitions Toolbox & Elaboration/Analysis StartersTheme Reflection #2, Semester Grade ChartFinal Exam Study GuideFinal Exam Schedule (for IB students)

AP Literature: Major Works Data Sheet TemplatePast Open Essay PromptsSuggested Works for Open EssayAP Lit TermsAP Score CalculatorMajor Works Data Packet (2017)MWDP (2016)MWDP (2015)MWDP (2014)MWDP (2013)

Week 4:6 (Apr. 23-27)

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Pre-IB English 2: Macbeth E-textMacbeth Notes“Reading Shakespeare” PacketMacbeth Theme LogA3-4 RolesB3-4 RolesC3-4 Roles, Freshmen FSA Reading Testing Room ListFSA Practice TestFinal Exam Schedule (for IB students)

AP Research: Digital PortfolioUser Guide for the Digital PortfolioSenior Exam Schedule (for traditional, non-AP classes)

AP LiteratureReading ScheduleMLA TemplateFinal Poetry PacketNotes on AbsurdismMajor Works Data Sheet TemplateLiterary 3×3 ExamplesPast Open Essay PromptsSuggested Works for Open EssaySenior Exam Schedule (for traditional, non-AP classes)

Week 4:5 (Apr. 16-20)

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Pre-IB English 2: Macbeth E-textMacbeth Notes“Reading Shakespeare” PacketMacbeth Character ListMacbeth Theme LogA3-4 RolesB3-4 RolesC3-4 RolesTheme Reflection #1, Transitions Toolbox, FSA Practice Test

AP Research: PREP #19-30Digital PortfolioUser Guide for the Digital PortfolioTips for a Great Presentation (Good & Bad Examples)Presentation & Oral Defense RubricOral Defense QuestionsSample Presentation

AP LiteratureReading ScheduleMLA TemplateFinal Poetry PacketAP Credit PoliciesNotes on AbsurdismMajor Works Data Sheet TemplateLiterary 3×3 ExamplesPast Open Essay PromptsSuggested Works for Open Essay

Week 4:4 (Apr. 9-13)

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Pre-IB English 2: Macbeth E-textMacbeth Notes“Reading Shakespeare” PacketMacbeth Character List“Why Read Shakespeare?” ExcerptMacbeth Theme LogA3-4 RolesB3-4 RolesC3-4 RolesTheme Reflection #1

AP Research: PREP #19-30Digital PortfolioUser Guide for the Digital PortfolioTransitions ToolboxTips for a Great Presentation (Good & Bad Examples)

Paper: Academic Paper RubricElements of the PaperPurdue OWL / Samples: Mixed #1Qual #1Qual #2Qual #3Qual #4Qual #5Quant #1Quant #2Quant #3 / New Samples: AP sample (1)AP sample (2)AP sample (3)AP sample (4)AP sample (5)

Presentation: Presentation & Oral Defense RubricOral Defense QuestionsSample Presentation

AP LiteratureFinal Reading ScheduleMLA TemplateFinal Poetry PacketAP Credit PoliciesNotes on Existentialism & Absurdism“The Myth of Sisyphus”

Fairy Tale Lit-Crit: Literary Criticism SheetsMLA Template“Little Red Riding Hood”,“The Snow Queen”“The Princess and the Pea”“The Little Gingerbread Man”“Puss in Boots”“The Ugly Duckling”“Jack and the Beanstalk”“The Three Bears”“The Three Little Pigs”“The Little Mermaid”“The Emperor’s New Suit”“Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp”

Major Works Data Sheets: Major Works Data Sheet TemplateLiterary 3×3 ExamplesPast Open Essay PromptsSuggested Works for Open Essay

Week 4:3 (Apr. 2-6)

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Pre-IB English 2: Macbeth E-textMacbeth Notes, “Reading Shakespeare” PacketMacbeth Character List, Macbeth Responsibilities (the Pink Sheet), “Why Read Shakespeare?” Excerpt, Macbeth Theme LogA3-4 RolesB3-4 RolesC3-4 Roles

AP Research: PREP #19-30Digital PortfolioUser Guide for the Digital PortfolioTransitions ToolboxTips for a Great Presentation (Good & Bad Examples)

Paper: Academic Paper RubricElements of the PaperPurdue OWL / Samples: Mixed #1Qual #1Qual #2Qual #3Qual #4Qual #5Quant #1Quant #2Quant #3 / New Samples: AP sample (1)AP sample (2)AP sample (3)AP sample (4)AP sample (5)

Presentation: Presentation & Oral Defense RubricOral Defense QuestionsSample Presentation

AP LiteratureFinal Reading ScheduleMLA TemplateFinal Poetry PacketAP Credit PoliciesSample AP Lit Exam and its KeyNotes on Existentialism & AbsurdismWaiting for Godot Prompts“The Myth of Sisyphus”

Fairy Tale Lit-Crit: Literary Criticism SheetsMLA Template“Little Red Riding Hood”,“The Snow Queen”“The Princess and the Pea”“The Little Gingerbread Man”“Puss in Boots”“The Ugly Duckling”“Jack and the Beanstalk”“The Three Bears”“The Three Little Pigs”“The Little Mermaid”“The Emperor’s New Suit”“Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp”

Major Works Data Sheets: Major Works Data Sheet TemplateLiterary 3×3 ExamplesPast Open Essay PromptsSuggested Works for Open Essay